Chloramines are used as a disinfectant in public water supplies, to replace or supplement chlorine disinfection. Monochloramine is the most effective disinfectant of the chloramines, but reacts more slowly than chlorine. Chloramines remain active in water longer than chlorine.
Inorganic chloramines in water are: monochloramine (NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and trichloramine (NCl3). Monochloramine is often present in drinking water with a pH of 7.5 to 9. As chlorine concentration increases and pH is reduced, dichloramine and trichloramine will form. Chloramine molecules are stable and have no net electrical charge.
“Indoor pool smell” is caused by dichloramine and trichloramine reacting with ammonia sources in swimming pools, such as urine, perspiration, body oils.
Health Effects of Chloramines in Water
Excessive or prolonged inhalation or ingestion can cause eye or nose irritation, stomach discomfort and anemia.
EPA Regulation of Chloramines in Water
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (primary) maximum contaminant levels are:
- 4.0 mg/L (measured as Cl2). (Typical municipal residual monochloramine concentration for drinking water disinfection is about 2.0 mg/L.)
- World Health Organization (WHO) recommends maximum of 3.0 mg/L for drinking water disinfection.
Recommended Treatment Methods for Chloramines in Water
Your first step should involve having a Qualified The Better Water Co. Technician perform a professional WATER TEST to determine the overall quality of your water. During The Better Water Co.’s analysis, a sample can be collected and sent to a State Certified Lab to accurately measure the arsenic levels in your water.
The following solutions have been tested and approved for chloramine removal:
- whole house water condensing system
- Catalytic Water Filter Systems
- Our Pure PremiumAdvanced Reverse Osmosis or Alkaline Ionize Systems